Webinars: „Advancing Frontiers of Geosciences“
International Webinar Series
The KIT international webinar series was established at the beginning of 2021 as an online program with the aim to provide individuals from the KIT Earth and space science community the opportunity to gain comprehensive knowledge on the latest advancements in geoscientific developments without the need of travelling in these uncertain times.
The webinar series will be dedicated to presentations and following discussions on new scientific ideas, exciting research projects, overviews of a geoscientific discipline, and new perspective in geosciences. Internationally acclaimed speakers will share their insights and latest research results. Speakers will be selected to present either disciplinary geoscientific topics or multi- and interdisciplinary topics across many geoscientific disciplines or even transdisciplinary topics across natural and social sciences, engineering, and policymaking. Webinars will also concern scientific challenges related to urgent problems of society, such as alternative sources of energy, environmental changes, and disaster risk reduction.
The webinars will be held monthly during semesters to attract attention KIT faculties, scientists, and students. Normally they will be scheduled on Thursday at 12:00 to 13:30, but the time may be adjusted to allow for speakers from Americas and Asia/Pacific.
The moderator of the webinar series is Dr. Alik Ismail-Zadeh.
Below is the link to the Zoom webinars:
Meeting ID: 682 1059 3022
International Geoscience Programme Enabling Early Career
Geoscientists to Achieve Sustainable Development Goals
Date: 7 October 2021
Abstract - Sustainable development is a major concern for society, even more for young people. This concept was first introduced in the Brundtland Report (1987) as the "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Earth sciences are part of the answer and since 1972, UNESCO, through the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP) and in partnership with the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), has harnessed the intellectual capacity of a worldwide network of geoscientists to lay the foundation for our planet’s future, focusing on responsible and environmental resource extraction, natural hazard resilience and preparedness, and adaptability in an era of changing climate. UNESCO, the only United Nations organization with a mandate to support research and capacity building in geology and geophysics, and its flagship programme, the International Geoscience and Geoparks Programme, actively contribute to society and to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals. UNESCO Global Geoparks (UGGp) are laboratories for sustainable development which promote the recognition and management of Earth heritage, and the sustainability of local communities. UNESCO GLOBAL GEOPARKS offer young people opportunities to engage with the activities of the UNESCO Global Geoparks. The IGGP promotes collaborative projects with a special emphasis on the benefit to society, capacity building, and the advancement and sharing of knowledge between scientists with an emphasis on North-South and South-South cooperation. Women, young and early career scientists from developing countries are especially encouraged to lead IGCP projects.
Özlem Adiyaman Lopes is Senior Adviser to the International Geoscience Programme of UNESCO. She holds a Ph.D. degree, from the Paris Sorbonne University (France) in partnership with the Hacettepe University (Ankara, Turkey) and Blaise Pascal University (Clermont Ferrand, France); she has scientific research expertise in the fields of Earth Observation data processing and interpretation as well as Structural geological and Geochemical analysis of the active tectonic and volcanic zones. With her over 20 years professional experience in the corporate and public organisations as well as academic sector (i.e. Portsmouth University and Imperial College of London, ConocoPhillips Inc. USA and Department for Education and Department for Business and Innovation in England), Dr. Adiyaman is specialized in geosciences communication, natural resources exploration, supplier/contract/programme management for the development and dissemination of new technical and scientific products and technology transfer. Following the completion of her PhD in 2000, Özlem lectured at the Geohazards Research Centre of Portsmouth University and worked with Conoco Phillips Inc. in Houston as an exploration geologist. During her service for the Ministry of Education between 2004 and 2011, she established and delivered new change programmes in England to design and distribute the national exams and modernize this process by implementing strategic technical changes necessary. At Imperial College of London, she led grant proposal development activities and upon successfully receiving multimillion £ EPSRC Programme Grant, she directed a team of cross-divisional scientists from several major UK and International Universities and industry (Airbus, EADS, NASA Langley) to deliver a science programme to produce new and accurate approaches to predicting and controlling transition to turbulence (Laminar Flow Control). Between 2013 and 2016, Özlem led New Products Development team at the National Physical Laboratory and delivered £6M/year Research and Innovation government contracts to ensure the launch of NPL’s new propositions into the market is in conjunction with fully developed solutions as well as internal business readiness. Since 2016, Özlem works for the UNESCO Natural Sciences Sector and is responsible for the implementation of the international collaboration projects and global initiatives related to the International Geoscience and Geoparks Programme (IGGP).
Modeling Explosive Eruption Dynamics and Hazards (tentative title)
Speaker: Augusto NERI (Italy)
Date: 4 November 2021
Ultra-High Pressure and Temprature Crystallography (tentative title)
Date: 16 December 2021
A World of Karst, Caves and People (tentative title)
Speaker: Nadja Zupan Hajna (Slovenia)
Date: 20 January 2022
Short CV: Professor Nadja Zupan Hajna is a Research Advisor at the Karst Research Institute of the Scientific Research Centre of Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Professor at the UNESCO Chair of Karst Education of the University of Nova Gorica and the Karst Research Institute, and Officer/Treasurer of International Union of Speleology. She is mainly engaged in the studies of cave sediments, karst geomorphology and geology, as well as the interpretation and promotion of karst and its science.
Artificial Water Reservoir Triggered Seismicity
Speaker: Harsh Gupta (India)
Date: 20 May 2021
Abstract - Several anthropogenic activities such as gold and coal mining, filling of artificial water reservoirs, geothermal and oil/gas production, high-pressure fluid injection, etc. are known to have triggered earthquakes. Artificial water reservoir-triggered seismicity (RTS) is one of the most prominent among anthropogenic seismicity, with several hundred cases known globally. At least at 5 locations RTS events have exceeded magnitude M 6, causing much damage and claiming human lives. Koyna, India is a very prominent RTS site where earthquakes started soon after the impoundment of the reservoir in 1962, the largest RTS event of M 6.3 occurred on 10 December 1967, and RTS has continued till now (2021). Detailed investigation of RTS sequences has led to the identification of certain characteristics that are common to RTS earthquake sequences and differentiate them from normal (not associated with artificial water reservoirs) earthquakes. In the absence of near field studies, the mechanism of RTS is not well understood. Koyna is found to be a suitable site for such investigations. In collaboration with the International Continental Drilling Program, a 3 km deep Pilot Borehole has been drilled as a precursor to establishing a deep (6 to 7 km) borehole laboratory for the near field study of earthquakes. Salient features of these works are presented in this talk.
Harsh Gupta, Director Emeritus of the National Geophysical Research Institute in Hyderabad, India, is internationally known for his pioneering work devoted to characterizing earthquakes triggered by filling of artificial water reservoirs, discriminating them from normal earthquakes, and developing innovative mitigation procedures. Harsh Gupta has several major contributions on seismic and geodynamic processes at work in the Tibetan Plateau and Himalayan regions, the Bay of Bengal, and the Arabian Sea, as well as on characterization of seismic rupture zones of the Koyna and Latur stable continental regions. Harsh Gupta published over 200 scientific papers and several authored and edited books. Harsh Gupta received several awards, prizes and medals including Waldo E. Smith Medal of the American Geophysical Union and Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology (India). He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Sciences of India and the Indian National Science Academy. He is currently a Member of the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, President of the Geological Society of India, and the Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics (Springer). He was a Member of the Indian National Disaster Management Authority chaired by the Indian Prime Minister; Secretary to Government of India, Department of Ocean Development; Vice-Chancellor, Cochin University of Science & Technology; and Professor of the University of Texas at Dallas (USA). He served the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics as President for 2011–2015.
Compound and Cascading Hazards:
Typology, Modeling and Risk Assessment
Speaker: Amir AghaKouchak (USA)
Date: 24 June 2021
Time: 9:00–10:30 (note the time!)
Ground-based observations and model simulations show substantial increases in extreme events including rainfall events, droughts, wildfires, hot spells and heatwaves. The first step toward improving our societal resilience is to identify the new patterns of climate extremes and natural hazards. This requires a better understanding of tempo-spatial characteristics of natural hazards and also the interactions between different hazards in a changing climate. A combination of climate events (e.g. high temperatures and high humidity, or low precipitation and high temperatures) may cause a significant impact on the ecosystem and society, although individual events involved may not be severe extremes themselves – a notion known as compound event (e.g. extreme rain over burned areas, combined ocean and terrestrial flooding). Numerous studies have focused on how different types of extremes have changed or might change in the future. However, very few studies have investigated the changing risk of compound and cascading events. This presentation focuses on three different types of compound and cascading events including drought-heatwaves, sea level rise-terrestrial flooding and meteorological-anthropogenic drought. We present different methodological frameworks and perspectives for detecting, modeling and risk assessment of compound and cascading events.
Amir AghaKouchak, Professor of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, and Earth System Science at University of California, Irvine, USA, is among the most creative and productive mid-career geoscientists, and his scholarship, international standing, outreach and service to the community are widely acknowledged. Amir AghaKouchak has published over 170 research papers focusing on hydrology, remote sensing, civil and environmental engineering, water resources, natural hazards, climate change, climate extremes, droughts, floods and compound hazards. He is known for his contributions to analysis and understanding of natural hazards and their societal impacts, including droughts, floods, heat waves and the interactions between inter-related compounds. Amir AghaKouchak is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union and received several awards and medals including the 2012 Frontiers of Engineering Education Award of the U.S. National Academy of Engineering; the Hydrologic Sciences Early Career Award of the American Geophysical Union (AGU); Early Career Scientist Award of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics; AGU James B. Macelwane Medal (for his fundamental and innovative contributions to the study of hydrologic extremes and compound natural hazards) and Walter L. Huber Civil Engineering Research Prize of the American Society of Civil Engineers (for his notable contributions to the science of compound and inter-connected extreme weather events). Currently, Amir AghaKouchak is the Editor-in-Chief of the AGU Earth’s Future journal. Website: http://amir.eng.uci.edu/
Long-term Strength of the Lithosphere and the Distribution of Seismicity
Insights from 3D-Observation-based Models
Speaker: Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth (Germany)
Date: 22 July 2021
Integrating observations on the physical configuration of the lithosphere into data-based 3D structural models resolving the first order variations in physical properties is still a major challenge in geosciences. Nevertheless, such integration yields results that improve with the amount and variety of data types integrated. We use 3D models that integrate surface geology, well informations, seismic and seismological observations as well as gravity and heat flow observations to resolve the first order characteristics of the present-day physical state of the sedimentary part, the crystalline crust and the uppermost mantle in different tectonic settings. We then use these 3D geological models as a basis to calculate the thermal and rheological configuration that together describe the present-day thermomechanical stability of a certain setting. Next, we assess how the lithospheric strength varies within the region in response to the natural tectonic setting as well as the internal thermal configuration, and how those variations can be related to the recorded seismicity. The results from different studies indicate that the regional characteristics of the long-term strength of the lithosphere match the spatial distribution of seismicity, indicating that the mechanical stability of an area is primarily controlled by strength variations. Comparing the modeled strength distribution with available seismicity catalogs, we find that seismicity is shallower and of lower intensity due to a hotter and weaker crust of more felsic composition compared to seismic energy release of larger magnitudes occurring at deeper levels in more mafic crustal domains. We compare the rift setting of the Rhine Graben with the Alps and their forelands as well as with the transform setting of the North Anatolian fault system in the Marmara Sea. The work to be presented here has been conducted in collaboration with M. Cacace, D. Anikiev, J. Bott, E. Golamrhezaie, C. Spooner, H.J. Götze, and M. L. Gomez Dacal.
Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth is the Director of Department „Geosystems“ at GFZ Potsdam, head of Section Basin modelling at GFZ Potsdam, and Professor for Basin Analysis at RWTH Aachen University, Faculty of Georesources and Materials Engineering. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth’s research interests are broad covering geodynamics, sedimentary basins evolution, geoenergy, simulation of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical processes, thermal field, the lithosphere structure, gravity and isostasy and interpretation of seismic data. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth published more than 100 peer-reviewed papers and book chapters. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth is a Member of Academia Europaea. She serves DGGV German Geological Society as Vice President and the Nationale Begleitgremium (NBG) as a Member elected by the German Government. She was Secretary General of the International Lithosphere Programme, co-sponsored by the International Union of Geological Sciences and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics.